Ink dating expert uk

The size of the reference library of the laboratory conducting the examination is also highly important in the chances of success and also in determining the significance of a match. The only time that a library search will not result in one and only one match is if either the questioned ink is not found in the reference library this is primarily due to the newness of the ink or the incompleteness of the reference library or if several samples from different manufacturers are so similar that they cannot be discriminated from one another.


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The second option should not be confused with the same ink manufacturer producing the same ink formulation for several different ink companies, such as, Formulabs producing the same ink formulation for Parker and Cross blue ball point pens. Many other similar examples exist.

Ink dating expert uk

It should also be noted that if extensive fading has occurred, the ink and paper have been burned or excessively heated, or the sample is somehow contaminated, i. Obviously, no library can ever be complete and no exact measure of completeness can be accurately stated, since the number of unknown and unseen inks cannot be stated. If more analysis is done or some unique component is present, then less of a qualification is necessary.

Keeping up with changes in formulations by manufacturers is also important. In recent years several manufacturers have made minor changes to popular formulations, which are evident in the above TLC examinations. One example is, in approximately Bic added an additional bold blue dye to their blue ballpoint formulation. If an ink being examined contains this newer formulation with the additional blue band it could not have been written until in or after Another example is the addition of a yellow dye to the black ballpoint formulation of Itoya.

This addition was made sometime in There are also numerous other examples like the two mentioned. Ink dating — cases: In the following real case examples, one can see the manner in which the three thin layer chromatography tests can be used to aid in examinations.

Ink dating — first case example: In the first example is a diary detailing racial harassment was produced as part of the evidence by the plaintiff. There were many entries throughout four books some involving these allegations and many that did not. All of the entries that did concern the alleged harassment had been contaminated with a yellow highlighter so that a relative ink age determination discussed in the next chapter could not be performed.

The unquestioned entries were examined first. These inks were all uncontaminated and showed to be written by a large variety of different writing instruments over the four-year period of the diaries. If the questioned entries were genuine and written on or about their purported dates they should exhibit approximately the same degree of randomness.

However, in this case it was found that two ink formulations were used to write 53 of the 54 entries regarding the claim of racial harassment. One formulation was a blue ballpoint ink and the other was a reddish-brown ballpoint ink.

ink age, handwriting, art dating, fraud, forgery, ink dating

This grouping encompassed 53 entries over the four-year period. Furthermore, the questioned inks matched in formulation to other inks contained in the diaries but was a different batch of ink than any unquestioned ink in any of the four years of writing that was submitted, but all the ink in the questioned entries are consistent with one another. Based on this evidence it was concluded that the entries were not written at many different times throughout the years, as purported by the author; but instead at all the same time or near the same time.


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  • The doctor denied writing these entries. A handwriting examination was conducted on these words, which is detailed in an earlier chapter as well as a relative ink age comparison, which is in the next chapter.

    Relative Ink Age Comparison Tests – Ink Dating

    A thin layer chromatography examination was conducted on the two questioned entries and compared to the writings known to have been written by the doctor denying authorship, as well as several dozen comparison samples from other writers throughout the chart. It was found that the questioned portions were written with a pen that only matched writings known to have been done by the doctor that was denying authorship and was a different ink and different pen than any writing that was done elsewhere in the chart by any other writer in the dozens of entries that were used for comparison purposes.

    This evidence butriced the conclusion of authorship that was arrived at from the handwriting examination.

    Ink dating — third case example — In the third example a day planner contained one questioned entry in a diary for the calendar year The entry was written with a blue ballpoint ink. There were many different types of ink used throughout the diary. A thin layer chromatography TLC test was conducted to compare the ink formulations used to write the questioned entry to the other unquestioned blue ballpoint inks used in the book. If similar ink was found elsewhere in the diary, a relative ink age comparison test could have been conducted to determine when the questioned entry was written.

    However, the results of the TLC test showed that the questioned ink was a different formulation than any other entry in the entire diary. This result alone is an indication that the questioned entry was not written contemporaneous with its purported date. A subsequent TLC test was done to identify the make and manufacturer of the ink used in the questioned entry in order to determine when this type of ink was first commercially available.

    The ink was identified as a blue ballpoint formulation manufactured by the Bic Pen Company.


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    • However, Bic did not produce pens with this type of ink in them until and later. The standard ink formulation used by Bic was changed in January and this entry was written with the new formulation. Therefore, the entry could not have been written in as purported by the author but had to have been written sometime in or later. Ink dating — fourth case example — The fourth example was a portion of evidence in a case that contained a mountain of evidence showing that some engineering notebooks were added to and written after the fact.

      Some of the evidence in this case has been discussed, in previous chapters of this book. The ink involved in this portion of the case was found in a pocket day planner for the calendar year The ink that was used to write the questioned entries was identified as manufactured by Formulabs, formula Differentiating inks can be important in cases where a document is suspected of having been altered.

      A classic example is where a zero is added to a cheque making the value ten times as much. The 'dating' of inks is a hugely complex area and depends to a large extent on the conditions used to store the document that bears the ink. Many factors affect the apparent ageing of ink including: Check out three drops of signatures, but not just for dating is a member of documents.

      Method for Obtaining Raw Data for the R-Ration and Percent Extraction – Ink Dating

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